Rhinoplasty is one of the most popular plastic surgeries involving manipulation in the nose. The objective of this procedure is to restore the proper shape of the nose, which was broken as a result of injury, disease or congenital abnormalities.
The history of the development
You may think that rhinoplasty is a recent invention, and are turning and services surgeons completely alone stars and models. This is not so. The first mention of the technique of recovery of the nose are and antiquity. Similar operations were carried out in India for 1000 years BC Indian doctors had repaired the damaged noses, taking skin from the cheek of the patient.
In Europe, the rhinoplasty was developed in the Middle ages. Italian surgeons described his own method of restoring the shape of the nose from the skin. In the 19th century, this kind of operations has received new impetus, thanks to the efforts of the English and German doctors. Phenomena, new methods, based on the experience of Indian surgeons.
The original purpose of rhinoplasty was to repair the nose, cosmetic and aesthetic factors have gained importance already in the google + profile of the 20th century.
Medical indications and rhinoplasty
Any plastic surgery can be called a creative process, and rhinoplasty is no exception. It combines the solution of an aesthetic problem with the restoration or preservation of the functions of the authority (normal nasal breathing).
Thus, this intervention may pursue both therapeutic and aesthetic purposes. It is best to do the surgery at the age of 25-30 years, when the cartilage is fully formed. Of course, the recommended age may vary depending on individual circumstances hell.
- Violation of nasal breathing or complete lack of it.
- Traumatic injuries that have led and changes and deformation of cartilage and bones.
- Physiological and compensatory curvature of the nasal septum.
- Congenital curvature or deformity of the nasal septum.
- Cysts and polyps in the nose.
- Hypertrophy of the turbinates.
Violations of the anatomical structure of the nose and lead to different functional complications and pathological mills. This may include: otitis media, rhinosinusitis, asthma, snoring, frequent respiratory infections, atrophy or hypertrophy of the membranes of the nose, difficulty in nasal breathing.
Especially dangerous violation of nasal breathing for children. It can cause oxygen starvation of the brain, which causes mental and physical developmental delays. The operation to restore the respiratory function can be designed and 18 years.
Aesthetic indications and rhinoplasty
More than half of the operations change the shape of the nose done for cosmetic reasons. Patients want to achieve harmony in your appearance. Aesthetic indications for Yes, plastic surgery can be divided into two subgroups:
- Objective. If the nose may disproportionate size, shape.
- Sub actin. Yes, this subgroup includes, above all, psychological reasons related to the assessment of their appearance. For example, patient like a small hump or upturned.
Psychological causes are often associated with professional or social environment. The patient phenomena are complexes, acute dissatisfaction with their appearance.
- The deviated septum.
- Acquired and congenital deformities.
- Disproportionate size in relation to the person when the nose seems too large or too small.
- Saddle nose shape.
- Too wide nostrils.
- Unattractive form when the tip of the nose forked, lowered, raised, thickened, or pointed.
- Asymmetrical nose.
- Correction of the consequences of a failed rhinoplasty.
It is important to understand that the result of the operation is not always possible to obtain a perfect result. In surgery, there are limitations, therefore rhinoplasty should be seen as a correction of an existing form.
Before surgery, many patients are advised to see a psychologist. There are cases when a patient may normal the shape of the nose without aesthetic or functional disorders. Then the problem will be solved after working with the psychologist.
Plastic surgeons can produce special measurements, and to say exactly whether there are defects. There are certain parameters by which to assess how the shape of the nose and the harmony of its position relative to the forehead, eyes, mouth, chin, ears. On the advice of a doctor, you can simulate on the computer the estimated exterior face after the surgery.
- Age limits. Surgery is not recommended and 18 and after the age of 40. These limitations may be removed due to objective reasons.
- Diabetes, kidney disease, liver, cardiovascular system.
- Folliculitis and acne in the nose area.
- The clotting of blood.
- Mental illness.
- The period of menstruation.
Types of rhinoplasty
Depending on the objectives and techniques of performing the surgical intervention rhinoplasty is divided into several types.
Goals for rhinoplasty may be:
- Reconstructive. This recovery of violations, which arose due to diseases, injuries, defects and fetal development.
- Aesthetic. This is a correction of cosmetic defects.
During the operation can be carried out:
- Increase or decrease of the nose.
- The removal of the hump.
- Correction of saddle-shaped nose, that is, the elimination of the recess.
- Correction of the shape of the tip of the nose.
- Septoplastike (this is the correction of nasal septum).
- Post-traumatic reconstruction.
According to the method of access surgery can be open and closed. Closed method is used in aesthetic operations, since it is less traumatic. In this case, all incisions are made inside the nasal cavity. The skin separates the hell of cartilage and the surgeon can easily adjust the form to work with bone and cartilage tissue, to remove excess or increase with implants. After manipulating the breakdown neatly filed.
Open rhinoplasty is used in difficult cases, to correct serious esneh changes and execute large-volume transactions. The cut is made at the skin crease between the wings of the nose. In this case, the surgeon good access and tissues, cartilage and bones. Healing with this method takes longer, is still noticeable postoperative scar.
Non-surgical rhinoplasty is not an alternative to surgical intervention. However, there are methods that allow you to correct small flaws.
Rhinoplasty with fillers (cosmetic gel) will help to correct minor flaws, soften sharp angles, restore symmetry, to change the shape of the tip. The use of fillers allows you to disguise a small bump, clean translating the name, round the tip.
The recovery period after surgery is easier, the cost is low compared with a full-fledged operation. However, the effect of ad filler will remain only for a few months (maximum 1.5 year). In some cases, the injection is formed fibrous tissue, and the external effect of ad treatments is maintained for years to come. But most often requires a second procedure. There is a complication: migration of the introduced gel and a change in the structure of fabrics after repeated injections.
With the help of injections not only increase, but also to remove the tissue. There are preparations on a hormonal basis, which can eliminate bumps, bulges and even in some cases a hump. With the introduction of these drugs is very important to be careful. Often the procedure is performed in several stages. After 2-3 weeks there will be a significant result.
With the help of special threads you can adjust the shape of the wings of the nose and pull the tip. Set of thread through the pinholes that can form scars. Thread may break due to the mobility of the nose. For these reasons, surgeons rarely resort Yes this procedure.
Training and operations
For a successful operation requires the cooperation of the patient and the doctor. Before the intervention of the consultation where the surgeon will explain to the patient that he will be to achieve the desired result.
Conducted General studies: blood count, coagulation study, urinalysis, ECG, tests for HIV, hepatitis, syphilis.
If necessary, conducted a special study, is the. If you have a chronic illness, you will need to consult General practitioner or relevant specialist. The intervention will be postponed in case of aggravation of chronic diseases, the occurrence of acute respiratory diseases or infectious skin lesions. Before surgery you will meet with anesthesiology.
Your doctor may recommend to abstain from alcohol, Smoking, eliminate heavy hedgehog, to stop taking sleeping pills and sedatives. In two weeks, so intervention is required to stop taking aspirin and its analogues.
Rhinoplasty is one of the most complex plastic surgery as an important aesthetic and functional side. Complications arise depending on various factors, in 4-15% of patients. They can be divided into operational and aftercare.
- breaks in the skin;
- violation of the integrity or fractures of the bones;
- separation of the cartilage flap, etc.
- loss of smell;
- loss or reduction of sensitivity of the nose and lower lip;
- obstruction of nasal breathing;
- atrophic rhinitis;
- deterioration correct a cosmetic defect or lack of changes;
- psychological complications (patient does not accept changes in appearance, he doesn't like the new face);
- swelling of nose and eyelids, inflammation, suppuration;
- pigmentation of the skin, scar formation, capillary network;
- frequent or prolonged nosebleeds;
The most dangerous complication that can occur during the rhinoplasty surgery is an allergic reaction to anesthesia. Anaphylactic shock can lead to death in 20% of cases.
The recovery period
The patient can leave the hospital within a few hours after the surgery or stay overnight for observation. The main recovery after the repair of the nose lasts for 3 weeks. Full restoration will come only after six months or a year.
The stitches and a plaster splint will be removed after 1.5 weeks. 2 more weeks can not take a hot bath, to wash with hot water – it can cause bleeding, bruising, swelling of the face and neck. Need to sleep on the back reclining. You cannot bend, lift weights. In dusty areas should wear a mask.
For three months you need to carefully protect themselves from shocks and pressure to the nose, do not wear glasses, masks, hard hats. It is prohibited to use the pool and sunbathe. The surgeon may also impose other restrictions dictated by the individual mills of the patient.
The results of the operation
The healing of cartilage and bone tissue takes several months. The end result of the surgeon and the patient will be able to evaluate after about 8 months. The decision to do a rhinoplasty (especially if you do not have absolutely clear testimony) may be perceived negatively, because the patient must be willing and mixed reactions from family and friends.
Relatives may be unhappy with the loss of a family or ethnic traits. However, often the patient himself and his family, I do not notice much effect from such an operation, because the swelling hides the changes appear gradually.
Rhinoplasty is quite capable to change the appearance, but do not assume that using plastic surgery is possible without restrictions to model everything that is in fantasy. Any surgery is a dangerous thing, can lead to complications and even worsening vices. Therefore applies to such intervention need serious Esna, carefully weighing the possible benefits and the risk of negative consequences.